Articulation Norms

By Pam Marshalla

happy hat toddler by hobomama on flickrQ: What articulation developmental norms do you use?

I don’t use any specific developmental norms because of the following:

  • Lieberman (1980) found that a rudimentary vowel quadrilateral is set in infant vocal productions by 5 months of age.
  • According to a recent chapter by Vihman (2004), research demonstrates that average children acquire basically all the consonant phonemes by 3 years of age.
  • All studies that have been done since Templin in 1957 have demonstrated that all the consonants reach adult form by 8-9 years of age, once the permanent teeth are in place.

Using the norms as a basis of deciding when to enroll clients in therapy is a remnant of an earlier age. Stimulability and readiness are more important determining factors today.

However, if you have to use them, the newest norms can be found in Smit et al (1990).


2 thoughts on “Articulation Norms”

  1. This is amazing! Thanks for spreading the word! I did my Masters thesis on this topic and am irritated by how many professionals deny services based on those outdated norms.

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