This advice-column-style blog for SLPs was authored by Pam Marshalla from 2006 to 2015, the archives of which can be explored here. Use the extensive keywords list found in the right-hand column (on mobile: at the bottom of the page) to browse specific topics, or use the search feature to locate specific words or phrases throughout the entire blog.
Q: Do you have any advice on working on reading with a six-year-old child with severe apraxia and dysarthria? This child is having many difficulties with phonological and phonemic awareness and is struggling in all academic areas. Are there any reading programs that you know of that would help? I am already working on phonological awareness skills with her.
First, if he is struggling in “all academic areas” there is more wrong than just apraxia and dysarthria. Apraxia and dysarthria are motor speech disorders and have nothing to do receptive language, cognition, or general learning. This child also has a cognitive deficit, a receptive language disorder, a language-learning disorder, an auditory processing disorder, or something else.
Second, apraxia is a motor speech disorder; therefore working on phonological awareness only will help to a certain extent. A reading program will help him organize his thoughts about phonemes, but it will not get to the heart of his speech production problem. Your client needs to learn to speak better syllables, phonemes, and supersegmentals based on muscle function. The problem is in his ability to perceive and control his movements, not in his ability to hear phonemes.
Third, it sounds like you need basic info about what apraxia is. I am writing a new book for parents on apraxia and dysarthria which will explain my perspective. Until then may I suggest the following written materials below.
- Ballard, K. J., & Granier, J. P., & Robin, D. a. (2008) Understanding the nature of apraxia: Theory, analysis, and treatment. Neuropsychological Trends, 4.
- Bashir, A. S., & Grahamjones, F., & Boswick, R. Y. (1984) A touch-cue method of therapy for developmental verbal apraxia. In W. H. Perkins and J. L. Northern (Eds.) Seminars in Speech and Language (pp. 127-137). NY: Thieme-Stratton.
- Blakely, R. (1983). Treatment of developmental apraxia of speech. In W. H. Perkins (Ed.), Current Therapy of Communication Disorders. NY: Thieme.
- Caruso, A. J., & Strand, E. A. (1999) Clinical Management of Motor Speech Disorders in Children. NY: Thieme.
- Crary, M. A. (1993) Developmental Motor Speech Disorders. San Diego: Singular.
- Darley, F. L., & Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1975) Motor Speech Disorders. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
- Duffy, J. R. (1995) Motor Speech Disorders: Substrates, Differential Diagnosis, and Management. St. Louis: Mosby.
- Hall, P., & Jordan, L., & Robin, D. (1993) Developmental Apraxia of Speech: Theory and Clinical Practice. Austin: Pro-Ed.
- Kaufman, N. (2006) The Kaufman Speech Praxis Workout Book: Treatment Materials and a Home Program for Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Gaylord, MI: Northern Rehabilitation Services.
- Kaufman, N. (1995) The Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children. Detroit: Wayne State University
- Kent, R. D. (1999) “Motor control: Neurophysiology and functional development.” In A. J. Caruso and E. D. Strand (Eds.) Clinical Management of Motor Speech Disorders in children. NY: Thieme.
- Love, R. J. (1992) Childhood Motor Speech Disability. NY: Merrill.
- Marshalla, P. (2009) Improving Intelligibility in Apraxia and Dysarthria: Recorded Seminar. Mill Creek, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
- Marshalla, P. (2007c) Apraxia Uncovered: The Seven Stages of Phoneme Development. Kirkland, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
- Marshalla, P. (2001a) Becoming Verbal with Childhood Apraxia. Kirkland, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
- McNeil, M. R. (1997) Clinical Management of Sensorimotor Speech Disorders. New York: Thieme.
- Rosenbek, J. C., & Kent, R., & LaPointe, L. (1984) “Apraxia of speech: An overview and some perspectives.” In Apraxia of speech: Physiology, Acoustics, Linguistics, Management. Rosenbeck, J. C., & McNeil, M. R., & Aronson, A. E. (Ed’s.) San Diego: College Hill. (p. 1-71).
- Rosenbek, J. C., & McNeil, M. R., & Aronson, A. E. (1984) Apraxia of Speech. San Diego: College-Hill.
- Rosenbek, J. C., & Wertz, R. T., & Darley, F. L. (1973) Oral sensation and perception in apraxia of speech and aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 16, p. 22-36.
- Velleman, S. L. (2002). Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Resource Guide. NY: Thomson Delmar.
- Yorkston, K. M., & Beukelman, D. R., & Strand, E. A., & Bell, K. R. (1999). Management of Motor Speech Disorders in Children and Adults. Austin: Pro-Ed.