The Roots of Oral-Motor Therapy: A Personal View

By Shanti McGinley

This opinion paper was originally posted as a downloadable PDF on my website’s resources page. I am slowly formatting the articles over there for posting to this blog. This post was authored in March, 2011, and revised in April, 2011. Download the original PDF here.

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The Roots of Oral-Motor Therapy: A Personal View

By Pam Marshalla, MA, CCC-SLP
Speech-Language Pathologist

Time

The 1970’s was a time when SLP’s begin to work in multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary teams with OT’s, PT’s and other professionals. For the first time, SLP’s and motor specialists were sharing their thoughts and ideas regarding therapy with one another. The oral-motor movement began in this decade in schools, hospitals, and clinics. These were clinical ideas born of the exchange of information, not research results.

Terms

At that time, OT’s and PT’s already were using the terms gross motor and fine motor to discuss the development, disorders, assessment, and treatment of whole body movements. The term oral motor came along as we added the discussion of oral movements for feeding and speech into the mix. The term came about as a natural outcome of team discussions. The term non-speech oral-motor exercise (NS-OME) was not used, and did not exist, at that time. The NS-OME is a new term made up after the evolution of oral motor therapy. It has no part in Pam’s personal history of oral-motor.

New Information

The decades of the 1970’s and 1980’s also was a time when speech and motor therapists in the US began to have broad access to information about feeding, dysphagia, motor speech therapy, orofacial myology, sensorimotor integration, neurodevelopmental treatment, and the structure of the infant oral mechanism. Therapists were attending many multiple-day seminars on this material, they were sharing information across disciplines, and they were reading whatever publications came along. This was a time of tremendous expansion of ideas related to oral movement. Again, this was clinical information, not research reports.

Key Seminars

There were several key seminars that took place in the 1970’s that had nation-wide influence on the thoughts of OT’s, PT’s and SLP’s. Some of these seminars were recorded, transcripts were produced, and the bound material was sold to tens of thousands of therapists who were working worldwide.

The key person around whom all the early oral-motor/feeding seminars were based was Dr. Suzanne Evans Morris. Dr. Morris was a speech-language pathologist who had studied dysphagia under Jerilyn Logemann, did her doctoral research on infant feeding development, and studied neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) with Karl and Berta Bobath (the developers of NDT) in England. Dr. Morris was the one who brought NDT back to the US.

As Dr. Morris finished her PhD on feeding development, she began to teach seminars and the term oral-motor began to have regular use. Many of these training seminars were taught through a grant program at the Curative Workshop of Milwaukee, WI (first known as the Kiwanis Children’s Center). According to Dr. Morris, “The grant program was to develop a demonstration project for feeding and pre-speech development for children from Birth to 3 years with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. It was referred to by our group simply as ‘The CP Project.’  It began in 1969. In approximately 1973 we went into the demonstration phase of the project in which we selected 10 (?) centers throughout the USA to replicate the program.  Each center sent a team of therapists to Milwaukee for a week-long series of training workshops” (personal correspondence, March, 2011). From there a variety of therapists were teaching oral-motor seminars nationwide.

The following seminars and publications represent important publications of Dr. Morris’ early work.

1977

  • Wilson, J. M. (Ed.) (1977) Oral-motor function and dysfunction in children. Conference proceedings. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

This was perhaps the most important beginning to oral-motor. This 3-day conference focused on feeding development, disorders, assessment and treatment, and there was one section on speech. The seminar was multi-disciplinary and included presentations on structure, function and neural control of the oral and pharyngeal mechanism. The presenters included Suzanne Evans Morris, Ph.D., Suzann Campbell, Ph.D., Joan Werner, Ph.D., James Bosma, M.D., Constance Evans, M.A.C.T., Sandra Radka, M.A.C.T., and Janet Wilson, L.P.T. This was a 4-day seminar presented on May 25-28. This transcript was bound in green and became known as “The Green Book.”

1977

  • Morris, S. E. (1977) Program guidelines for children with feeding problems. Edison: Childcraft.

This set of program guidelines developed out of therapy with families. It was intended to help therapists to problem solve the causes of, and to design remediation plans for, feeding problems. It discussed the topics of limited food preferences, oral-tactile hypersensitivity, frequent gagging, drooling, and so forth. This book was bound in yellow and became know as “The Yellow Book.”

1981

  • Morris, S. E. (1981) The normal acquisition of oral feeding skills: Implications for assessment and treatment. Seminar handbook. NY: Therapeutic Media.

This 4-day seminar was presented on June 20-23, and was taught exclusively by Dr. Morris. It included information on normal oral-motor development, differential diagnosis of feeding problems, anatomy and physiology review, assessment, and treatment of feeding problems. This seminar also included information on “parallel patterns” of oral-motor development in feeding and speech production, a pre-speech assessment questionnaire and scale, and a section on “the development of stability and mobility in the oral-pharyngeal system.” This transcript set the stage for transferring information about oral-motor development, assessment, and remediation from feeding to speech. This transcript was bound in blue and became known as “The Blue Book.”

1983

  • Morris, S. E., and Klein, M. D. (1983). Pre-feeding skills: A comprehensive resource for mealtime development. Austin: Pro-Ed.

This book immediately became the ultimate reference for concepts of oral-motor and feeding therapy. This book was first published in 1983 and revised in 2000. In the 1980’s this book quickly became known as “The Bible of Feeding Therapy.”

Transfer to Articulation Therapy

Since Van Riper, SLP’s have known that certain clients had mouths that simply did not function well. Van Riper called them “clumsy-tongued individuals” and “the slow of tongue.” Therefore, once therapists began to understand basic concepts about oral-motor development, assessment, and treatment in regard to feeding, they immediately began to translate this information into articulation therapy. Some began to present continuing education seminars on these ideas.

Pam Marshalla was the first to take the concepts of oral-motor that were being taught in regard to feeding, and to bring them publicly into articulation therapy in the seminar format. Her company, Innovative Concepts, was formed in 1982 and was based in Urbana, IL. It was the first ASHA-approved continuing education company to present seminars on oral-motor and articulation. She taught two-day seminars called “Tactile-Proprioceptive Stimulation Techniques in Articulation Therapy” and “Oral-Motor Techniques in Articulation Therapy.” Eventually her company also offered seminars by Sara Rosenfeld-Johnson, Charlotte Boshart, and others interested in oral motor. Marshalla’s early presentations and publications on oral-motor include the following:

1978

  • Marshalla (Rosenwinkel), P., & Kleinert, J. E. O., & Robbins, R. L. (1978) “Tactile-proprioceptive stimulation techniques and the frontal lisp.” Paper. Illinois Speech and Hearing Association Convention. Chicago, IL.

1979

  • Rosenwinkel, P. (Marshalla), & Kleinert, J. E. O., & Robbins, R. L. (1979) “Remediation of severe speech and language disorders: A pre-speech sensorimotor developmental model.” In Selected papers: Current trends in the treatment of language disorders presented at the 1979 annual convention of ASHA, Atlanta, GA. M. S. Burns & J. R. Andrews (Eds.) Evanston: Institute For Continuing Professional Education.

1982

  • Marshalla, (Rosenwinkel), P. (1982) “Tactile-proprioceptive stimulation techniques in articulation therapy.” Seminar handbook. Champaign, Illinois: Innovative Concepts in Speech and Language Therapy.

First ASHA-approved seminar on oral-motor and articulation therapy.

  • Marshalla, P. (1982) The Innovative Concepts Speech and Language Therapy Newsletter, Vol. 1 No. 1. Urbana, IL: Innovative Concepts. Published from 1982-1989.

Pam began to publish her ideas about oral-motor and articulation therapy in this bi-monthly newsletter. Available today as published archives.

1985

  • Marshalla, (Rosenwinkel), P. (1985) “The role of reflexes in oral-motor learning: Techniques for improved articulation.” Seminars in Speech and Language. Pp. 317-336. NY: Thieme.

Marshalla suggested this issue of Seminars that was devoted to the relationship between speech and swallowing. It was edited by Jerilyn Logemann.

1992

  • Marshalla, P. (1992) “Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy.” Seminar handbook. Seattle, WA: Innovative Concepts.

1992

  • Marshalla, P. (1992) Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy. 2-day seminar recorded in Huntington Beach, CA. Seattle, WA: Innovative Concepts.

1995

  • Marshalla, P. (1995) Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy. Kirkland, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.

This book was written to include the information discussed in the original 1992 seminar of the same title.

References

The following books, articles, and seminar transcripts have been in instrumental in developing Pam’s concept of oral-motor techniques. These have been put into chronological order to show the development of ideas throughout the decades.

[This list does not include references to the modern and unrelated concept of the non-speech oral-motor exercise to which Pam does not subscribe.]

Pre-1950 – Early Underpinnings

1928

  • Stetson, R. (1928) Motor Phonetics. USA: North Holland Publishing.

1937

  • Gessell, A. & Ilg, F. L. (1937) Feeding behavior in infants. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

1938

  • Stinchfield, S. M., & Young, E. H. (1938). Children with delayed or defective speech: Motor-kinesthetic factors in their training. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

1939

  • Van Riper, C. (1939) Speech Correction: Principles and methods. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Van Riper talks about “clumsy-tongued individuals,” and the “slow of tongue.”

1950’s – Basic Concepts

1952

  • Gessell, A. (1952) Infant development. NY: Harper and Brothers.
  • Froeschels, E. (1952) Dysarthric speech: Speech in cerebral palsy. Magnolia, MA: Expression.

1954

  • Fairbanks, G. (1954) Systematic research in experimental phonetics: A theory of the speech mechanism as a servosystem. JSHD, p. 133–139.

1954

  • Fay, T. (1954) The use of pathological and unlocking reflexes in the rehabilitation of spastics. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 33, p, 347-352.

1955

  • Young, E. H., & Hawk, S. S. (1955) Moto-kinesthetic speech training. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

1957

  • Morley, M. (1957) The development and disorders of speech in childhood. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

This book had a principle focus on children with motor speech disorders. The author was practicing in England where she was exposed to the treatment procedures of the Bobaths who develop neurodevelopmental treatment – NDT. Morley was encouraged to write this book by Van Riper himself who wanted to see these ideas brought to the United States.

1960’s – Building Ideas

1962

  • Illingworth, R. S. (1962) An introduction to developmental assessment in the first year: Little Club Clinics in developmental medicine #3. London: National Spastics Society in association with William Heinemann (Medical Books).

1963

  • Illingworth, R. S. (1963) The development of the infant and the young child: Normal and Abnormal, 2nd edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.

1964

  • McDonald, E. T., & Chance, B. (1964) Cerebral palsy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
  • McDonald, E. T. (1964) Articulation testing and treatment: A sensory-motor approach. Pittsburgh: Stanwix House.

1965

  • Ronson, I. (1965) Incidence of visceral swallow among lispers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 30, p. 318-324.

1966

  • Crickmay, M. C. (1966) Speech therapy and the Bobath approach to cerebral palsy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

1967

  • Bosma, J. (Ed.) (1967) Symposium on oral sensation and perception. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Gibson, J. J. (1967) The mouth as an organ for laying hold of the environment. In Bosma, J. (Ed.). (1973). Oral sensation and perception. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. (p. 111–136).
  • McDonald, E. T. & Aungst, L. F. (1967) Studies in oral sensorimotor function. In Bosma, J. (Ed.). Oral sensation and perception. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. (p. 202–220).

1968

  • Mysak, E. D. (1968) Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech. NY: Teachers College.

1970’s – Exploding Ideas

1970

  • Cratty, B. J. (1970) Perceptual and motor development in infants and children. Los Angeles: McMillan.
  • Dunlap and Streicher Institute for Speech and Hearing (1970) A new theory based on oral habits as causal factors in speech development. Monograph.
  • Weinberg, B., & Liss, G. M., & Hillis, J. (1970) A comparative study of visual, manual, and oral form identification in speech impaired and normal speaking children. In J. Bosma (Ed.), Second Symposium on Oral Sensation and Perception. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

1971

  • Bobath, K. (1971) The normal postural reflex mechanism and its deviation in cerebral palsy. Physiotherapy, 57 (11).
  • Powers, M. H. (1971). Functional disorders of articulation: Symptomatology and etiology. In L. E. Travis (Ed.), Handbook of speech pathology and audiology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, p. 837-875.
  • Powers, M. H. (1971). Clinical and educational procedures in functional disorders of articulation. In L. E. Travis (Ed.), Handbook of speech pathology and audiology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, p. 875-910.
  • Sakada, S. (1971) Response of Golgi-Mazzoni Corpuscles in the Cat Periostea to Mechanical Stimuli. In Dubner, R. & Kawamura, Y. (Eds.) Oral-Facial Sensory and Motor Mechanisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

1972

  • Fiorentino, M. R. (1972) Normal and abnormal development: The influence of primitive reflexes on motor development. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

1973

  • Bosma, J. (Ed.). (1973). Fourth symposium on oral sensation and perception. (NIH, DHEW Publication No. 73-546). Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  • Rosenbek, J. C., & Wertz, R. T., & Darley, F. L. (1973) Oral sensation and perception in apraxia of speech and aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 16, p. 22-36.

1974

  • Bower, T. G. R. (1974) Development in infancy. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.

1975

  • Darley, F. L., & Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1975) Motor speech disorders. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

1976

  • Towen, B. (1976) Neurological development in infancy. London: William Heinemann.
  • Zelazo, P. (1976) From reflexes to instrumental behavior, in L. P. Lipsett (Ed.) Developmental psychobiology: The significance of infancy. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

1977

  • Bower, T. G. R. (1977) A primer of infant development. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
  • Bosma, J. (1977) Structure and function of the infant oral and pharyngeal mechanism. In Wilson, J. M. (Ed.) Oral-motor function and dysfunction in children. Conference proceedings (p. 33–65). Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina.
  • Mason, R., & Simon, C. (1977) An orofacial examination checklist. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in the Schools. 8, pp. 155-163.
  • McNutt, J. C. (1977) Oral Sensory and Motor Behaviors of Children with /s/ or /r/ Misarticulations. JSHR, 20, p. 694-703.
  • Morris, S. E. (1977) Assessment of children with oral-motor dysfunction (Section II), and Treatment of children with oral-motor dysfunction (Section III). In Wilson, J. (Ed) Oral-motor function and dysfunction in children. Seminar proceedings. Chapel Hill: U. North Carolina. Pp. 106–208.
  • Morris, S. E. (1977) Program guidelines for children with feeding problems. Edison: Childcraft.
  • Wilson, J. M. (Ed.) (1977) Oral-motor function and dysfunction in children. Conference proceedings. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.

1978

  • Ayres, A. J. (1978) Sensory Integration and Learning Disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological.
  • Campbell, S. K. (1978) Oral sensorimotor physiology. In Oral-motor function and dysfunction in children, Wilson, J. M. (Ed.). Conference proceedings, May 25-28, 1977. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina.
  • Marshalla (Rosenwinkel), P., & Kleinert, J. E. O., & Robbins, R. L. (1978) Tactile-proprioceptive stimulation techniques and the frontal lisp. Paper. Illinois Speech and Hearing Association Convention. Chicago, IL.
  • Morrison, D., & Pothier, P., & Horr, K. (1978) Sensory-motor dysfunction and therapy in infancy and early childhood. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Oller, D. K. (1978) Infant vocalizations and the development of speech. Allied Health and Behavioral Sciences Journal, 1 (4) Pp. 523-549.

1979

  • Rosenwinkel, P. (Marshalla), & Kleinert, J. E. O., & Robbins, R. L. (1979) Remediation of severe speech and language disorders: A pre-speech sensorimotor developmental model. In Selected papers: Current trends in the treatment of language disorders presented at the 1979 annual convention of ASHA, Atlanta, GA. M. S. Burns & J. R. Andrews (Eds.) Evanston: Institute For Continuing Professional Education.

1980’s – Broadening Ideas

1980

  • Bobath, K. (1980) Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 75, A neurophysiological basis for the treatment of cerebral palsy: 2nd edition of CDM 23, The motor deficit in patients with cerebral palsy. Spastics International Medical Publications. London: William Heinemann Medical Books.

1980

  • Kent, R. (1980) Articulatory and acoustic perspectives on speech development. In The communication game: Perspective on the development of speech, language and non-verbal communication skills. Reilly, A. P. (Ed.) Pediatric Round Table: 4. (Pp. 38-42) Johnson & Johnson. United States.
  • Murry, T., & Murry, J. (1980) Infant communication: Cry and early speech. Houston: College-Hill.
  • Mysak, E. D. (1980). Neurospeech therapy for the cerebral palsied: A neuroevolutional approach. NY: Teachers College Press.

1981

  • Garliner, D. (1981) Myofunctional therapy. Coral Gables: Institute for Myofunctional Therapy.
  • Morris, S. E. (1981) The normal acquisition of oral feeding skills: Implications for assessment and treatment. Seminar handbook. NY: Therapeutic Media.
  • Steefel, J. S. (1981) Dysphagia rehabilitation for neurologically impired adults. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

1982

  • Marshalla, (Rosenwinkel), P. (1982) Tactile-proprioceptive stimulation techniques in articulation therapy. Seminar handbook. Champaign, Illinois: Innovative Concepts in Speech and Language Therapy.
  • Marshalla, P. (1982) The Innovative Concepts Speech and Language Therapy Newsletter, Vol. 1 No. 1. Urbana, IL: Innovative Concepts. Published from 1982-1989.
  • Farber, S. D. (1982) Neurorehabilitation: A multisensory approach. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
  • Salek, B., & Braun, M., & Palmer, M. M. (1982) Early detection and treatment of the infant and young child with neuromuscular disorders. Conference transcription, June 1982, Boston, MA. NY: Therapeutic Media.
  • Stainback, S. B., & Healy, H. A. (1982) Teaching eating skills: A handbook for teachers. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

1983

  • Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. D. (2000, 1983). Pre-feeding skills: A comprehensive resource for mealtime development. Austin: Pro-Ed.
  • Illingworth, R. S. (1983) The normal child: Some problems of the early years and their treatment, 8th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  • Logemann, J. (1983) Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders. San Diego: College-Hill.
  • Perkins, W. H. (1983) Dysarthria and Apraxia. NY: Thieme-Stratton.

1984

  • Jaffe, M. B. (1984) Neurological impairment of speech production: Assessment and treatment. In Janis Costello (Ed.) Speech Disorders in Children. San Diego: College-Hill.
  • McNeil, M. R., & Rosenbeck, J. C., & Aronson, A. E. (Eds.) (1984) The dysarthrias: Physiology, acoustics, perception, management. San Diego: College-Hill.
  • Ruscello, D. M. (1984) Motor learning as a model for articulation instruction. In Speech disorders in children: Recent advances. J. Costello (Ed.) (Pp. 129-156) San Diego: College-Hill.

1985

  • Kennedy, J G., & Kent, R. D. (1985) Anatomy and physiology of deglutition and related functions. Seminars in Speech and Language. 6 (4) pp. 257-274.
  • Larson, C. (1985) Neurophysiology of speech and swallowing. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6 (4). Pp. 275-292.
  • Logemann, J. (1985) Preface. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6 (4).
  • Logemann, J. (1985) The relationship of speech and swallowing in head and neck surgical patients. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6 (4) Pp. 351-359.
  • Marshalla, (Rosenwinkel), P. (1985) The role of reflexes in oral-motor learning: Techniques for improved articulation. Seminars in Speech and Language. Pp. 317-336. NY: Thieme.
  • Morris, S. E. (1985) Developmental implications for the management of feeding problems in neurologically impaired infants. Seminars in Speech and Language. 6 (4). Pp. 293-316.
  • Robbins, J. (1985) Swallowing and speech production in the neurologically impaired adult. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6 (4). Pp. 337-350.

1986

  • Wolf, P. H. (1986) The maturation and development of fetal motor patterns. In Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control, M.G. Wade and H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, p. 77-96.

1987

  • Langley, J. (1987) Working with swallowing disorders. England: Winslow.

1988

  • Hanson, M. L. (1988) Orofacial myofunctional disorders: Guidelines for assessment and treatment. IJOM, 14 (1).
  • Hanson, M. L., & Barrett, R. H. (1988) Fundamentals of orofacial myology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  • Kaplan, A. S., & Williams, G. (1988) The TMJ book. NY: Pharos Books.
  • Kelso, J. A. S., & Munhall, K. G. (Eds.) (1988).  R. H. Stetson’s motor phonetics: A retrospective edition. Boston: College-Hill.
  • Oetter, P., & Richter, E. W., & Frick, S. M. (1988) M.O.R.E: Integrating the Mouth with Sensory and Postural Function. Hugo, MN: PDP.

1990’s – Focusing on Speech and Feeding

1990

  • Lynch, J. I. (1990) Tongue reduction surgery: Efficacy and relevance to the profession. Asha, 32, January.
  • Gunzenhauser, N. (Ed) (1990) Advances in touch: Pediatric round table #14. Skillman: Johnson & Johnson.

1991

  • Langley, M. B., & Thomas, C. (1991) Introduction to the neurodevelopmental approach. In M. B. Langley & L. J. Lombardino (Eds.) Neurodevelopmental strategies for managing communication disorders in children with severe motor dysfunction. Austin: Pro-Ed.
  • Langley, M. B.,  & Lombardino, L. J. (Eds.) (1991) Neurodevelopmental strategies for managing communication disorders in children with severe motor dysfunction. Austin: Pro-Ed.
  • Fisher, A. G., & Murray, E. A., & Bundy, A. C. (1991) Sensory integration: Theory and practice. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
  • Mason, R., et al (1991) The role of the speech-language pathologist in assessment and management of oral myofunctional disorders. Asha Supplement No. 5.
  • Moore, C. A., & Yorkson, K. M., & Beukelman, D. R. (1991) Dysarthria and apraxia: Perspectives on management. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Nelson, C. A., & De Benabib, R. M. (1991). Sensory preparation of the oral-motor area. In Neurodevelopmental Strategies for Managing Communication Disorders in Children with Severe Motor Dysfunction, Langley, M. B. & Lombardino, L. J. (Eds.) Pp. 131-158.
  • Wilbarger, P., & Wilbarger, J. L. (1991) Sensory defensiveness in children aged 2-12: An intervention guide for parents and other caregivers. Santa Barbara: Avanti.

1992

  • Ansel, B., & Windsor, J., & Stark, R. (1992) Oral volitional movements in children: An approach to assessment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13 (1) Pp. 1-13. NY: Thieme.
  • Fletcher, S. G. (1992) Articulation: A physiological approach. San Diego: Singular.
  • Marshalla, P. (1992) Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy. Seminar handbook. Seattle, WA: Innovative Concepts.
  • Marshalla, P. (1992) Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy. 2-day seminar recorded in Huntington Beach, CA. Seattle, WA: Innovative Concepts.
  • Orlikoff, H. (1992) The use of instrumental measures in the assessment and treatment of motor speech disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13 (1). NY: Thieme. Pp. 25-38.
  • Robbins, J. (1992) The role of oral motor dysfunction on swallowing: From beginning to end. Seminars in Speech and Language, 13 (1). Pp. 55-69.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (1992) A three-part treatment plan for oral-motor therapy. Seminar handbook. Seattle: Innovative Concepts.
  • Stone, M., & Faber, A., & Raphael, L. J., & Shawker, T. H. (1992) Cross-sectional tongue shape and linguopalatal contact patterns in [s], [], and /l/. Journal of  Phonetics, 20, p. 253-270.
  • Unser, M., & Stone, M. (1992) Automated detection of the tongue surface in sequences of ultrasound images. Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 91, p. 3001-3007.

1993

  • Johnson, H., & Scott, A. (1993) A practical approach to saliva control. San Antonio: Communication Skill Builders.
  • Boshart, C. (1993) Oral-motor techniques: Remediate your single-sound artic cases in half the time! Seminar Handbook. Seattle: Innovative Concepts.
  • Gangale, D. (1993) The source for oral-facial exercises. East Moline, IL: Linguisystems.
  • Hall, P., & Jordan, L., & Robin, D. (1993) Developmental apraxia of speech: Theory and clinical practice. Austin: Pro-Ed.
  • Ruscello, D. M. (1993) A motor skill learning treatment program for sound system disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 12 (2). Pp. 106-118.
  • Zimmerman, J. (1993) The tongue, the teeth and resistant speech problems. Seminar handbook. Seattle: Innovative Concepts.

1994

  • Tuchman, D. N., & Walter, R. S. (1994) Disorders of feeding and swallowing in infants and children. San Diego: Singular.
  • White, R. (1994) Sensory integration and neurodevelopmental therapy. Seminar handbook. Seattle: Innovative Concepts.

1995

  • Marshalla, P. (1995) Oral-motor techniques in articulation and phonological therapy. Kirkland, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
  • Kaufman, N. (1995) The Kaufman speech praxis test for children. Detroit: Wayne State University.
  • Vatikiotis-Bateson, E., & Ostry, D. J. (1995) An analysis of the dimensionality of jaw motion in speech. Journal of Phonetics, 23, p. 101-117.

1996

  • Frick, S., & Frick, R., & Oetter, P., & Richter, E. (1996) Out of the mouths of babes.  Hugo, MN: PDP.

1997

  • Guiard-Marigny, T., & Ostry, D. J. (1997) A system for three-dimensional visualization of human jaw motion in speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, p. 1118-1121.
  • Marshalla, P. (1997) Drooling: Guidelines and Activities. Temecula, CA: Speech Dynamics.
  • McNeil, M. R. (1997) Clinical management of sensorimotor speech disorders. New York: Thieme.
  • Ostry, D. J., Vatilikiotis-Bateson, & Gribble (1997) An examination of the degrees of freedom of human jaw motion in speech and mastication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, p, 1341-1351.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (1997) The oral-motor myths of Down Syndrome. ADVANCE Magazine, August 4.

1998

  • Marshalla, P. (1998) Thumbsucking. Temecula, CA: Speech Dynamics.

1999

  • Kent, R. D. (1999) Motor control: Neurophysiology and functional development. In A. J. Caruso and E. D. Strand (Eds.) Clinical management of motor speech disorders in children. NY: Thieme.
  • Gibbon, F. E. (1999) Undifferentiated lingual gestures in children with articulation/phonological disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 42, p. 382-397.
  • Van Norman, R. (1999) Help for the thumb-sucking child. NY: Avery.
  • Yorkston, K. M., & Beukelman, D. R., & Strand, E. A., & Bell, K. R. (1999). Management of motor speech disorders in children and adults. Austin: Pro-Ed.

2000’s – Continued Therapy Input / Studies on Jaw, Lip, and Tongue Movements

2000

  • Solomon, N. P. (2000) Changes in normal speech after fatiguing the tongue. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 43; p. 1416-1428.

2001

  • Bahr, D. C. (2001) Oral motor assessment and treatment: Ages and stages. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
  • Marshalla, P. (2001) How to stop drooling. Marshalla Speech and Language. Kirkland, WA.
  • Marshalla, P. (2001c How to stop thumb sucking. Marshalla Speech and Language. Kirkland, WA.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2001) Oral-motor exercises for speech clarity. Tucson: Talk Tools.

2003

  • Hanson, M. L., & Mason, R. M. (2003) Orofacial Myology: International Perspectives. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.

2004

  • Marchesan, I. Q. (2004) “Lingua frenulum: Classification and speech interference.” IJOM 30, November. Pp. 31-38.
  • Marshalla, P. (2004) Successful R therapy. Mill Creek, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
  • Smith, A., & Zelaznik, H. N. (2004) Development of functional synergies for speech motor coordination in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, p. 22-33.
  • Solomon, N. P. (2004) Assessment of tongue weakness and fatigue. IJOM 30th Anniversary Edition. IAOM.

2005

  • Iskarous, K. (2005) Patterns of tongue movement. Journal of Phonetics, 33, p. 363-381.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2005) Assessment and treatment of the jaw: Putting it all together: Sensory, feeding and speech. Tucson: Talk Tools.
  • Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2005) Drooling remediation program for children and adults. Tucson: Talk Tools.
  • Smith, A. (2005) The developing speech motor system: Integrating muscles, movements and syntax. In Biologic and physiologic foundations of speech motor control. 15th Annual NIDCD-Sponsored Research Symposium, Asha Convention.

2007

  • Marshalla, P. (2007) Marshalla oral sensorimotor test. Greenville: SuperDuper.
  • Marshalla, P. (2007) Frontal lisp, lateral lisp. Mill Creek, WA: Marshalla Speech and Language.
  • Marshalla, P. (2007) Oral motor therapy is not new. Oral-Motor Institute, 1 (1) September. www.oralmotorinstitute.org.

2008

  • Bahr, D. C. (2008) A Topical Bibliography on Oral Motor Assessment and Treatment. Oral Motor Institute. 1, 2, January 16. www.oralmotorinstitute.org.
  • Marshalla, P. (2008) Oral motor techniques vs. non-speech oral-motor exercises. Oral-Motor Institute, 2 (1). www.oralmotorinstitute.org.
  • Palmer, P. M., & Jaffe, D. M., &McCulloch, T. M., & Finnegan, E. M., & Van Daele, D. J., & Luschei, E. S., (2008) Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw, and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 51, p. 828-835.

2009

  • Bahr, D. C., & Rosenfeld-Johnson, S. (2009) Treatment of Children with Speech Oral Placement Disorders (OPDs): A New Treatment Paradigm Emerges. Unpublished manuscript.
  • McLeod, S. & Singh, S. (2009) Speech sounds: A pictoral guide to typical and atypical speech. San Diego: Plural.

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